Technical information

Technical information of the Sandvik tool invites you to get acquainted with innovative methods of application of this or that technology. Also, the technical information of the Sandvik tool will acquaint you with the technical characteristics of the tools and methods of their use. For example lathes, etc.

General turning

What is turning?

Turning allows you to produce cylindrical and shaped surfaces using a single-edged tool. The essence of turning is that the tool makes a relative longitudinal movement, and the workpiece rotates.

Turning is the most common process in metal cutting with a high level of optimization, which requires careful consideration of various factors.

Turning can be broken down into a series of basic operations (longitudinal turning, face machining and profiling), where specific tools, cutting modes and programming are required for the most efficient machining.

Initial conditions for turning:

Review the following size and quality requirements for the workpiece:

  • Applications – for example, longitudinal or profile, internal or external turning
  • Type of processing – for example, roughing or finishing
  • Large, stable part
  • Small, long, thin, thin-walled part
  • Radius in corners
  • Quality requirements (accuracy, surface roughness, etc.).

After analyzing the features of the part, evaluate its characteristics:

  • Does the workpiece material have good chip breaking?
  • Is chip evacuation a critical issue? In the case of mass production, choosing an optimized Tailor Made tool to increase productivity is justified.
  • Lot size, one-off or mass production?
  • Is it possible to secure the part securely?

Machine

Considerations for machine tools:

  • Stability, power and torque, especially for large parts
  • Coolant supply or dry machining
  • Is high pressure coolant required for chip breaking when machining material,
    giving drain chips?
  • Tool change time / number of tools in the turret
  • Speed ​​limits, especially for bar feed magazine
  • The presence of a counter spindle or tailstock

What is successful parting and grooving?

When parting and grooving, two important aspects are process reliability and productivity. With the right set-up and the selection of the right tools, many complications can be avoided. These include boss build-up, tool breakage, chip bunching, poor surface finish on complex groove parts, inappropriate coolant pressure, long overhangs and high vibration levels that can ultimately result in expensive parts being rejected. To overcome these difficulties and successfully complete
We have some guidelines for parting and grooving.

Considerations when parting off and grooving

The following initial conditions affect the selection and application of parting and grooving tools.

Groove or surface

Observe the following quality requirements for the groove or surface to be machined:

  • Type of operation (eg parting off or grooving)
  • Depth of cut
  • Width of cut
  • Radius in corners
  • Quality requirements (accuracy, surface roughness, etc.). Is a wiper required to achieve the desired surface finish? The wiper insert improves surface finish at specified cutting conditions.

Detail

Having analyzed the quality requirements, estimate the parameters of the part:

  • Does the workpiece material have good chip control?
  • Is chip evacuation / chip control important?
  • Lot size: single groove or mass production of grooves? In the case of mass production, choosing an optimized Tailor Made tool to increase productivity is justified.
  • Is it possible to secure the part securely?

Machine

Pay attention to the following parameters:

  • Stability, power and torque, especially for large parts
  • Coolant lubricant (coolant) supply
  • Is high pressure coolant required for chip breaking on long chip material?
  • Tool change time / number of tools in turret
  • Speed ​​limits, especially for feed magazine and small diameter machining
  • Counter spindle or tailstock available

Threading

There are a variety of tapping methods and tools, selected based on part, profile and pitch.
Each threading method and tool has its own advantages in certain situations. To help you successfully and efficiently cut high quality threads, we have prepared a set of guidelines.

Initial data for threading

The underlying data below influences the choice of threading method and tool, as well as the conditions for their application.

Thread

Consider the following thread size and quality requirements:

  • Internal or external thread?
  • Thread profile (eg metric, UN)
  • Thread pitch
  • Right-hand or left-hand thread?
  • Number of thread starts
  • Accuracy (profile, deviations)

Detail

After analyzing the thread parameters, evaluate the characteristics of the part:

  • Is it possible to secure the part securely?
  • Is chip evacuation or chip control a critical issue?
  • Does the workpiece material have good chip control?
  • The volume of the batch of parts. For mass production of threads, it is advisable to use multi-flute
    inserts or optimized Tailor Made tools for maximum enlargement
    performance
  • One or more threaded surfaces

Detail

Thread profile defines the geometry of the thread and is characterized by such parameters as diameters (outer, inner and middle), thread angle, lead, radius and lead angle. See definitions.

The most common thread shapes and profiles are shown in the table below.

Machine

Pay attention to the following parameters:

  • Stability, power and torque, especially for large diameters
  • Supply of cutting fluid (coolant)
  • Is high pressure coolant required for chip breaking when machining chipping material?
  • Number of available tool positions suitable for the selected threading method
  • Speed ​​limits, especially for feed magazine and small diameters
  • Clamping possibilities, counter spindle or tailstock
  • Available threading cycles

Threading Techniques

Each threading method has its own advantages in certain situations.

Thread turning

  • High performance threading method
  • Tapping rotating parts symmetrically to the center of rotation
  • Covers the largest number of thread profiles
  • Simple and proven threading method
  • Provides good surface finish and thread quality

Thread milling

  • Tapping fixed parts and rotating parts asymmetrically to the center of rotation
  • Interrupted cuts provide good chip control in all materials
  • Low cutting forces allow threading at long overhangs and on thin-walled parts
  • Ability to thread close to shoulder or bottom of hole without grooving for tool exit
  • Ability to machine large workpieces that are not easy to fix on a lathe
  • Ability to machine large diameter threads with low power and torque requirements

Tapping

  • Simple and proven threading method
  • A productive and economical method, especially for small threads
  • Covers most thread profiles
  • Suitable for all types of machines and for machining both rotating and stationary parts
  • Good chip control thanks to a wide range of machining tools
    certain groups of materials
  • Easy to thread deep holes
  • Thread rolling capability
  • High thread quality

Vortex threading

  • For threading long thin parts such as screws
  • High quality threads without bending the workpiece
  • Tapping in one pass without preliminary roughing of the diameter reduces the cycle time
  • Accurate threads by tilting the cutter body by the lead angle
  • Good chip control allows more productive machining with fewer breaks
  • Vortex threading machine required

What is successful milling?

Over the years, milling has evolved into a machining method with an extremely wide range of operations. In addition to all traditional applications, milling is a powerful alternative for making holes, carving, machining cavities and surfaces that were previously sharpened, drilled and tapped.

Various types of milling operations

  • Shoulder milling
  • Face milling
  • Profile Milling
  • Slotting and parting off
  • Chamfer milling
  • Milling surfaces of bodies of revolution
  • Machining teeth
  • Machining holes, cavities and pockets

Various types of milling operations

1. Surfaces to be milled

The elements to be milled must be examined carefully. They can be located deeply requiring long overhangs, discontinuous surfaces and irregular material inclusions.

2. Detail

The surfaces of the workpieces can be cast skin or forging scale. A thin-walled part or the lack of the ability to securely hold the part requires the use of a specialized tool and processing method. To select the optimal cutting conditions, it is also necessary to analyze the workpiece material and its machinability.

3. Machine

When choosing a milling method, the type of equipment on which the processing will be performed is of great importance. End / shoulder milling
or grooves can be made on 3-axis machines, and for milling complex profiles, 4- or 5-axis machines are required.

Today, turning centers often allow milling with driven tools, while machining centers can often be used for turning. Thanks to the development of CAM systems, five-coordinate processing has become widespread. These systems add flexibility, but stability issues can arise.

Drilling a hole

Drilling is often performed at a late stage in the production process, when the cost of the part has already reached a certain level due to previous operations. This operation, which looks simple at first glance, is actually very complex and can lead to serious consequences in the event of improper operation or overloading of the instrument.

Prerequisites for hole drilling

1. Hole

The three most important parameters when drilling a hole:

  • Hole diameter
  • Hole depth
  • Hole quality
  • Hole type and accuracy requirements dictate tool selection. The drilling process is influenced by factors such as tool entry and exit.
    into an inclined or curved surface, as well as the presence of intersecting holes

Hole types

  • Bolt holes
  • Screw holes
  • Counterbore holes
  • Precision holes (for interference fit)
  • Piping holes (heat exchangers)
  • Holes forming channels
  • Balancing holes
  • Deep / coolant holes

2. Detail

After analyzing the parameters of the hole itself, pay attention to the material of the workpiece, the shape of the part and the number of holes.

Stock material

  • Does the material provide good chip control? Long or short chipping material?
  • Workability?
  • Material hardness?
  • Alloy elements?

Part form

  • Is the part symmetrical about the hole, that is, can the hole be drilled with a non-rotating drill?
  • Is the part stable enough or has elements that can cause vibration?
  • Is it possible to secure the part securely? What stability issues need to be considered?
  • Is a tool extension required? Should long overhangs be used?

Part form

Lot size also affects drill selection.

  • Large batch – use optimized drill bit (possibly customized).
  • Small batch – use universal drills

Quantity

Lot size also affects drill selection.

  • Large batch – use optimized drill bit (possiblyPlease, with individual parameters).
  • Small batch – use universal drills

3. Machine

It is important to understand the principles of safe and productive
drilling holes on a specific machine.
The machine parameters influence the selection:

  • Operation type
  • Type of holder and / or cartridge used

Be sure to consider the following:

  • Stability of the machine in general and the spindle in particular
  • Is the spindle speed (rpm) sufficient for small diameters?
  • Coolant supply. Is there enough coolant to handle large diameters?
  • Is there enough coolant pressure for small diameters?
  • Securing the workpiece. Is it tough enough?
  • Horizontal or vertical spindle? Horizontal spindle provides more efficient chip evacuation
  • Power and torque. Is there enough power to handle large diameters? If not, is it possible to use a trepanning drill or is it better to use helical interpolation milling?
  • Is there enough room in the tool magazine? In this case, a step and chamfer drill may be a suitable solution.

Tooling

Productivity is influenced not only by grade and geometry, but also by tooling and the ability to securely and accurately clamp the tool. Always use the shortest drill bit and cutno.

Consider a modular tooling system designed for all operations, including all holemaking techniques. Thanks to this system, the same cutting tools and holders can be used for different types of processing and different machines. This allows for standardization of the machining process, applying a single tooling system for the entire workshop.

Tool runout

Minimum runout of the tool is essential for successful hole drilling. The maximum runout should not exceed 20 microns. The lack of beating guarantees the following:

  • High precision and straightness of the hole
  • Good surface finish
  • Consistently high tool life

Selecting a processing method

Hole Machining Strategies

Hole Machining Strategies

  • Stepped holes / countersunk holes
  • Drill type 4/5

Benefits

  • + Engineering solutions
  • + Fastest method

Disadvantages

  • – Less flexibility

Hole Machining Strategies

  • Stepped holes / countersunk holes
  • Drill type 4/5

Benefits

  • + Standard instruments
  • + Relative versatility

Disadvantages

  • – Two instruments
  • – The need for two positions of the instrument
  • – Extended processing cycle time

Selecting a processing method

Drill Type 1

Standard

Drill Type 2

2 diameters (pilot diameter + body diameter) Hole and chamfer. No step processing.

Drill Type 4

2 diameters (pilot diameter + body diameter) Pilot hole, chamfer and step

Drill type 5

3 diameters (pilot + step + body diameter) Pilot hole, step and chamfer. No processing step 2.

Drill type 6

3 diameters (pilot + body diameter) Pilot hole, step, chamfer and 2 step

Drilling operations

The correct choice of drill is a guarantee of obtaining holes of the required quality at the lowest cost.
Below are the different types of holes that require different tools to cut:

  • Small and medium diameter holes
  • Large diameter holes
  • Deep Holes
  • Small holes

Small and Medium Hole Drilling

Three different solutions are available for drilling small and medium-sized holes: solid carbide drills, indexable head drills and indexable drills. Hole accuracy, length and diameter are three important parameters to consider when choosing a drill type. Each solution has its own advantages in certain situations.

Drilling large holes

Three different options are available for drilling large holes with limited machine power:

  • Use trepanning drill
  • Increase hole diameter with boring tool
  • Use helical interpolation milling

When drilling large holes, the stability of both the workpiece and the machine is important. In addition, the torque and power of the machine can be limiting factors. In terms of productivity, hole drilling has a significant advantage: it is 5 times faster than helical interpolation milling. However, the trepanning drill can only be used for through holes. The cutters have minimum torque and power requirements.

Deep hole drilling

Drilling pilot holes

Pilot drills are designed to be used with deep hole drills for maximum hole positioning accuracy and minimum runout.

Cutting speed and feed

The cutting rates and feed rates recommended for deep hole drills are calculated to provide good tool life combined with maximum productivity. The setpoints for the cutting speed and feed are the starting point for the machining process. In the future, they can be adjusted to achieve optimal results depending on the existing processing conditions.

Small hole drilling

Cutting speed and feed

KnowThe cutting speed and feed rates recommended when using small hole drills are designed to provide good tool life combined with maximum productivity. The setpoints for the cutting speed and feed are the starting point for the machining process. In the future, they can be adjusted to achieve optimal results depending on the existing processing conditions.

Coolant supply

Coolant pressure is a key factor when drilling small holes. Improper coolant pressure or volume can cause premature tool failure. We strongly recommend working with high coolant pressure. The standard recommended coolant pressure is 40–70 bar.

What is a deployment?

Reaming is a high precision finishing operation performed with a multi-edge tool. High surface finish, excellent hole quality and dimensional accuracy are achieved even at high feed rates and shallow depths of cut.

Initial data for deployment operations

When performing deployment operations, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors that affect the durability of the deployment:

  • Depth of cut
  • Speed ​​and feed
  • Stock material
  • Runout
  • Offset
  • Coolant pressure and concentration
  • Interrupted cutting
  • Securing the workpiece
  • Geometry and grade
  • Instrument length
  • Matching Holders

General deployment guidelines

For optimal results when using sweeps, it is important to “make them work”. A fairly common mistake when preparing holes for reaming is too little allowance. If the allowance in the hole is insufficient for reaming, the reamer will wear out and wear out quickly, resulting in a possible distortion of the hole diameter. In addition, for good results it is also important not to leave too much allowance in the hole.

Select the sweep type, sweep speed and sweep feed according to your situation. Ensure that the pre-holes are of the correct diameter
The workpiece must be rigidly fixed, and the machine spindle must not have any backlash.
The cartridge must be of adequate quality. If the reamer slips in the chuck, and the feed is carried out by an automatic machineManually, the scan may be damaged

Maintain a minimum overhang in relation to the machine spindle
Use recommended lubricants to increase tool life and ensure accurate fluid penetration on cutting edges. Since reaming is not a stressful operation, the use of a 40: 1 emulsion generally gives satisfactory results. Compressed air can be used when machining gray cast iron without coolant.
Do not block the reamer grooves with chips

Before dragging the flat pattern, be sure to check the center alignment. In most cases, regrinding only requires the cutting part.

General Boring Guidelines

Boring is a machining process aimed at increasing the diameter or improving the quality of an existing hole. For boring holes, there are several flexible tool systems with a wide range of diameters, suitable for both roughing and finishing.

Essential prerequisites for boring holes

The following important conditions affect the selection of boring tools and how they are used when boring holes.

Hole

The quality of the hole is influenced by the selected type of operation and the tool.

Be sure to take into account hole size and quality requirements, as well as existing restrictions:

  • Boring diameter
  • Depth
  • Precision, surface finish, positioning and straightness
  • Hole type

Through hole

Blind hole

Hole with tread

Intersecting holes,interrupted cutting

Define the type of operation – roughing or finishing:

Roughing

Machines an existing hole and strip to prepare for finishing. The existing holes can be made by methods such as drilling, casting, forging and flame cutting. Hole tolerances greater than or equal to IT9.

Finishing

Machining existing hole to achieve tight tolerances and high surface finish. Shallow depth of cut, typically less than 0.5 mm. Hole tolerances IT6 to IT8.

Finishing

Finishing

Detail

Define workpiece type

Form and quality:

  • Does the material have good machinability and chip breaking properties?
  • Is the part stable or has thin parts that could cause vibration?
  • Is a tool extension required to cut the hole?
  • Is it possible to secure the part securely? What stability issues need to be considered?
  • Is the part symmetrical about the hole, i.e. can a hole be machined on a lathe?
  • Batch size – mass production where optimized custom tooling is warranted to improve productivity, or single hole machining?

Material:

  • Workability
  • Chip breaking
  • Hardness
  • Alloy elements

Machine

Important machine characteristics:

  • Spindle interface
  • Machine stability
  • Is the spindle speed (rpm) sufficient for small diameters?
  • Coolant flow and pressure, is coolant flow and pressure sufficient?
  • Is the workpiece clamping stable enough?
  • Horizontal or vertical spindle? Horizontal spindle provides more efficient chip evacuation
  • Power and torque: Is there enough power for large diameters and boring tools with three cutting edges?
  • Is there enough room in the tool store?

Selecting machines and tool systems

Materials in production

When machining any materials, the correct choice of tool material (grade) and insert geometry in accordance with the characteristics of the workpiece is an important condition for successful high-performance machining. Other parameters – cutting data, tool path
etc. – also affect the final result

Formulas and definitions

In metalworking, the correct calculation of the values ​​of various parameters such as cutting speed and spindle speed is crucial
factor in obtaining the optimal result of the work of cutting tools.
This section contains the most important formulas and definitions for the following processing areas:

  • General turning
  • Parting and grooving
  • Tapping
  • Milling
  • Drilling
  • Boring

More details can be found on the catalog page.

Cutting data calculators and mobile apps

We know that you have to make hundreds of good decisions and that in your day-to-day work, you perform very difficult tasks. That’s why Sandvik Coromant offers several cutting data calculators and mobile apps to guide you through the entire production process. Find out how our digital do-it-yourself solutions can help you.

Preparing for processing

Get instrument recommendations in CoroPlus® ToolGuid
Find the recommended starting values ​​for cutting data by scanning the barcode on the insert box with the Starting Values ​​app
Create a tool assembly for programming and simulation online with the CoroPlus® ToolLibrary
Calculate the optimal cutting parameters for turning, drilling, milling and tapping with the Cutting Data Calculators
Find tools and calculate tool deflection for long overhang turning with the Silent Tools ™ Turning Calculator
Calculate machining parameters for a long overhang turning operation with the Silent Tools ™ Three-Pass Calculator
Most of Sandvik Coromant’s DIY digital services are available on the iFind mobile app
Determine the cause of tool wear with the Tool Wear Analyzer

Investment planning

Calculate your ROI with the ROI Calculator
Calculate your return on investment for your Coromant Capto® tool with the Coromant Capto® Calculator
Calculate the profitability of your metal cutting tools with the Manufacturing Economics Calculator

Search Tools

Find a replacement for your current tool among Sandvik Coromant tools using Insert ID
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Adapt the cutting tool to your specific needs and quickly get a quote with the Tailor Made Online Customizer

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